DNA Analysis Springfield, MO
What is DNA analysis and what is it used for?
There are a few reasons why people undergo DNA testing. Basically, this process helps in confirming a person’s identity whether for legal or personal reasons.
The DNA profiling process can also help determine a birth defect or genetic condition in a fetus or a newborn.
As for forensic DNA analysis, this helps identify victims or suspects in a crime.
And some people have their DNA tested to learn more about their ancestry through genetic genealogy.
So if you want to learn more about your roots, confirm or rule out a birth defect in an unborn child, identify any genetic condition you may have, or establish a biological relationship with someone for legal purposes, DNA analysis can make all of these happen.
Types of DNA Profiling Process
DNA testing analyzes your DNA, or the carrier of your genetic code that determines your physical traits, as well as your personality.
There are two types of DNA profiling methods used. These are:
1. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)
This DNA profiling process involves the analysis of any repeating base pairs of the DNA. To analyze the strands of DNA, scientists use a special enzyme to dissolve DNA. Then, they compare the lengths of DNA strands of different samples to establish a result.
The RFLP DNA analysis technique is more tedious as it requires a large DNA sample. It is also important that the sample is not contaminated to maintain an accurate result.
With the complexity of the RFLP technique, some laboratories have started using the Short Tandem Repeat Analysis (STR) instead. Its main benefit is the need for a smaller DNA sample, which is then amplified before analyzing it. Amplification increases the accuracy of the result without the need for a large sample.
2. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
In some cases, labs do not use the STR or the RFLP because of a complex mixture of genetic material provided. This is typical with forensic DNA analysis or sexual assault cases where there are several male contributors of DNA samples.
The SNP technique examines multiple genetic markers on the Y chromosome. This DNA profiling process also helps in determining biological relationships between sons and fathers to establish paternity.
3. Mitochondrial DNA Analysis (mtDNA)
It is also not possible to use the STR or RFLP testing when the sample lacks nucleated cells such as teeth, bones, and hair shafts. This is why scientists study the DNA found in the mitochondria of a cell when they conduct DNA analysis to solve criminal cases such as murders, suspicious deaths, or to find missing persons.
What are the Steps in DNA Analysis?
Now that we know the different types of DNA profiling process, let’s head over to the DNA profiling steps.
So how is DNA analysis done?
During DNA extraction, DNA molecules are separated from debris such as cellular material in a sample. Isolating just the DNA molecules help in the testing procedure since some the materials may inhibit the rest of the steps later on in the process. The extraction process may take about two hours or more.
DNA analysis laboratories must make sure that the sample is obtained from a human and not from a bacteria or other sources. This is why the quantitation process is required to measure and assess the quantity and quality of the DNA in a sample. Running the samples for quantitation takes more than two hours.
When the DNA sample is limited in quality and quantity, amplification is needed to establish accuracy in the result. The Polymerase Chain Reaction technique helps accomplish the amplification process by heating and cooling the samples. It takes over three hours to complete this process.
4. Capillary Electrophoresis
After amplifying the DNA molecules, they need to be separated to distinguish different molecules. Larger DNA molecules are separated from the smaller ones since the latter can migrate easily through the polymer. The duration of this step varies depending on the number and size of the samples, which could take from 45 minutes to several hours.
Dependable DNA Analysis Springfield, MO
DNA profiling is a crucial and complex process that involves a number of steps and various techniques. Depending on the purpose of the DNA testing required, a specialized technique may be necessary.
IPE Screening has been providing DNA analysis to clients since 1996. If you need DNA profiling done by experts who guarantee you reliable and accurate results, we are the ones to count on.
Call us today at (417) 881-2522 and set an appointment with us for a mobile or office visit.